What is GPR? Ground Penetrating Radar | Georadar
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  • What is Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)?

  • Penetrating Radar (GPR) is the general term applied to techniques which employ radio waves, typically in the 1 to 1000 MHz frequency range, to map structures and features buried in the ground (or in man-made structures). Historically, GPR was primarily focused on mapping structures in the ground; more recently GPR has been used in non-destructive testing of non-metallic structures.

    The concept of applying radio waves to probe the internal structure of the ground is not new. Without doubt the most successful early work in this area was the use of radio echo sounders to map the thickness of ice sheets in the Arctic and Antarctic and sound the thickness of glaciers. Work with GPR in non-ice environments started in the early 1970s. Early work focused on permafrost soil applications.

    GPR applications are limited only by the imagination and availability of suitable instrumentation. These days, GPR is being used in many different areas including locating buried utilities, mine site evaluation, forensic investigations, archaeological digs, searching for buried landmines and unexploded ordnance, and measuring snow and ice thickness and quality for ski slope management and avalanche prediction, to name a few.

    How does it work?

    1. Emits weak radio frequency signals
    2. Detects the echoes sent back and uses
      them to build an image
    3. Displays signal time delay and strength

    ground penetrating signal

    GPR is just like a fish finder & echo sounder

    Fish finder

    1. The finder sends out a ping
    2. Signal is scattered back from the fish
    3. Signal is scattered back from the bottom

    Fish finder

    • As the boat moves it collects recordings
    • The recordings are displayed side by side
    • The result looks like a cross section

    What’s so tough about GPR?

    • The ground is more complicated
    • Man-made structures are complex
    • Some things simply do not reflect
    • Some grounds absorb all of the signal

    Exploration depth is site specific

    • soils absorb radio waves
    • sands and gravel are favourable for GPR
    • fine grained soils such as silt and clay absorb signals
    • salty water is totally opaque

    ground soil types

    Why doesn’t the pipe look like a pipe?

    GPR data cross-section

    • the GPR record is a pseudo image of the ground
    • localized features become hyperbolas (inverted V’s)
    • the GPR sends signals into the ground in all directions
    • echoes are observed from all directions
    • closest approach (over target) occurs at apex of V
    • shape of inverted V helps determine exact depth


    What is the penetration depth for Ground Penetrating Radar?

    “How deep can You see?” is the most common question asked of ground penetrating radar (GPR) vendors. While the physics is well known, most people new to GPR do not realize that there are fundamental physical limitations.

    Many people think GPR penetration is limited by instrumentation. This is true to some extent, but exploration depth is primarily governed by the material itself and no amount of instrumentation improvement will overcome the fundamental physical limits.

    What controls penetration?

    Radio waves do not penetrate far through soils, rocks and most man-made materials such as concrete. The loss of radio reception or cell phone connection while driving a car through a tunnel or into an underground parking garage attests to this.

    The fact that GPR works at all depends upon very sensitive measuring systems being used and specialized circumstances. Radio waves decrease exponentially and soon become undetectable in energy absorbing materials, as depicted in Figure 1.

    radar signals decay Figure 1: GPR signals decay exponentially in soil and rock.

    The exponential attenuation coefficient, a, is primarily determined by the ability of the material to conduct electrical currents. In simple uniform materials this is usually the dominant factor; thus a measurement of electrical conductivity (or resistivity) determines attenuation.

    In most materials energy is also lost to scattering from material variability and to water being present. Water has two effects; first, water contains ions which contribute to bulk conductivity. Second, the water molecule absorbs electromagnetic energy at high frequencies typically above 1000 MHz (exactly the same mechanism that accounts for why microwave ovens work).

    Attenuation increases with frequency as depicted in Figure 2. In environments which are amenable to GPR sounding there is usually a plateau in the attenuation versus frequency curve which defines the “GPR window”.

    radar Amplitude-frequency Figure 2: Attenuation varies with excitation frequency and material. This family of graphs depicts general trends. At low frequencies ( 1000 MHz) water is a strong energy absorber.

    Can I decrease frequency to improve penetration?

    Lowering frequency improves depth of exploration because attenuation primarily increases with frequency. As frequency decreases, however, two other fundamental aspects of the GPR measurement come into play.

    First, reducing frequency results in a loss of resolution. Second, if frequency is too low, electromagnetic fields no longer travel as waves but diffuse which is the realm of inductive EM or eddy current measurements.

    Why can’t I just increase my transmitter power?

    One can increase exploration depth by increasing the transmitter power. Unfortunately, power must increase exponentially in order to increase depth of exploration.

    signal Attenuation-depth Figure 3: When attenuation limits exploration depth, power must increase exponentially with depth.

    Figure 3 shows the relative power necessary to probe to a given depth for the attenuations depicted in Figure 1. One can readily see increases in exploration depth require large power sources.

    In addition to practical constraints, governments regulate the level of radio emissions that can be generated. If the GPR transmitter signals become too large, they may interfere with other instruments, TVs, radios, and cell phones. (Unfortunately, these same ubiquitous devices are usually the limiting sources of noise for GPR receivers!)

    Can I predict exploration depth?

    Yes, provided the material to be probed is known electrically, many numerical calculation programs are available. The simplest way to get estimates of exploration depth is to use the radar range equation (RRE) analysis. Software to carry out these calculations is available and there are numerous papers on the subject. The basic concepts are depicted in Figure 4.

    Radar-range Figure 4: Radar range, shown here in flowchart form, determines energy distribution and provides a means of estimating exploration depth.

    RRE analysis is very powerful for parametric studies and sensitivity analyses.

    Radar Range is Too Complicated!

    Many users say RRE is too complicated for routine use. If you don’t like to get into detailed calculations, we suggest using the following simpler rule-of-thumb for estimating exploration depth

    D= 35/ meters

    where is conductivity in mS/m. While not as reliable as the RRE, this helpful rule is quite useful in many geologic settings.

    An even simpler approach is to use a table or chart of exploration depths attained in common materials. An example chart for common materials encountered with GPR is shown in Figure 5.

    GPR-exploration-depths Figure 5: Chart of exploration depths in common materials. These data are based on “best case” observations. As Figure 9 demonstrates, material alone is not a true measure of exploration depth.

    Figures 6, 7 and 8 show examples which range from deep to shallow exploration. Material type can be seen to control exploration depth. Unfortunately, exploration can not always be predicted by knowing only the material in the survey area.

    Granite-data Figure 6: Data from a massive granite – reflections are fractures. Bedding-in-wet-sand-data Figure 7: Data showing bedding in wet sand deposits. Barrels-in-wet-clay Figure 8: Data shows response of barrels in wet, silty clay.

    Figure 9 shows a section where the geology is basically uniform but the depth of exploration is highly variable. Pore water conductivity is varying while the geologic material is invariant! In this case, knowing conductivity provides a better measure of exploration depth than knowing the material.

    Sand-data Figure 9: GPR section from sand setting. Depth of exploration is determined by pore water conductivity-not the sand material. Contaminants leaching from a landfill cause variable conductivity (and exploration depth) with position.

  • How to read GPR Data?

  • The Basics of Interpreting GPR Data – Part 1

    The Basics of Interpreting GPR Data – Part 2

  • What are the applications of GPR?

  • GPR applications and suitable frequencies


    12.5 MHz 25 MHz 50 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 250 MHz 500 MHz 1000 MHz
    Deep Geology, Glaciology
    Utilities, Geotechnical
    Forensics, Snow & Ice
    Mining, Quarrying
    Concrete, Roads, Bridges


    Systems and Antennas by Applications



Find answers to commonly asked questions about Ground Penetrating Radar. (Click tab to expand)

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